|Towards the end of the Roman Empire of Occident, in 614, the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salone (Salona), were invaded by Avars; its inhabitants took refuge in the islands of the Dalmatian coast then in the old strengthened Palace of Diocletian with Spalatum, with about ten kilometers of Salone (today Solin, in the suburbs of Split). The palace east, at this time, left with the abandonment; the refugees settle there and transform it into private dwellings; they build houses in or against the ramparts, or the ancient monuments. The mausoleum of Diocletian is transformed into cathedral and the temple of Jupiter in baptistry.|
Under the formal authority of the Empire byzantin then Croatian kings, the city thus developed inside the walls of the Palace until the 11th century. After the 11th century, the city started to thrive by the trade and had to extend west of ramparts, doubling the surface of the city; during 13th and 14th centuries, a second urban core was created around what today is the National Place (Narodni Trg); this second center was in its turn strengthened at the 14th century. Split is then a free city attached to the kingdom hungaro-Croatian.
From 1420 to 1797, the city passed under the authority of Venice. Split became one of the main ports of the Adriatic. The prosperity of the trade led to an economic welfare and a wealth of the cultural activity: local architects, in particular Georges the Dalmatian one (Juraj Dalmatinac), equipped the town of beautiful Gothic Venetian palaces, such as the Papalić Palace, and of the writers, such as the poet Marko Marulić, started to produce a refined literature, of which first épopée in Croatian language (Judita).
However, the Othoman threat did not cease growing and, at the 17th century, the Venetian ones surrounded the two parts of the town of the same defense system made up of bastions of polygonal form projecting (Contarini bastion, turn of Hrvoje, fortress of Influenza etc) built by A. Magli.
The two medieval cores of the old city were classified by UNESCO with the World heritage; they have an almost comparable extent (30 000 m² and 20,000 m²); both are traversed narrow lanes which are articulated around the places. On the site of the old Palace (Stari Grad), the provision of the medieval streets respects the broad outline of the ancient structure with the crossing of the Roman ways of the cardo and the decumanus. The plan of the close core (Novi Grad), for its part, reflects a medieval space organization more spontaneous; it understands Romance churches of 12th and 13th centuries, medieval fortifications, Gothic palaces of the 15th century and other palaces of the Rebirth and baroque. The Peristyle remained the center of the religious life, while Narodni Trg became the municipal center of the city.
|The Palace of Diocletian (Dioklecijanova palača)|
|To go to the Palace of Diocletian.|
|The Cathedral Saint-Domnius (Katedrala svetog Duje)|
|To go to the Cathedral of Split.|
|The Church Saint Philip Néri (Crkva Svetog Filipa Nerija)|
|North of the cathedral, on the Place Queen Helene (Poljana Kralijce Jelene) is the church baroque Saint Philip Néri completed in 1755.|
|The Street Diocletian (Dioklecijanova Ulica)|
|The Street Diocletian (Ulica Dioklecijanova) follows the layout of old the cardo of the Palace of Diocletian; south in north, the street, broadside of medieval houses staggering, led a little since the peristyle of the Palace to the Gold Gate.|
Along the Street Diocletian one finds, on the right-hand side and especially on the left, several Renaissance palaces with typical architecture: elegant interior court, worked well, driving staircase external on the floor of reception. Above the private apartments were and finally, on the last floor (to avoid the odors), the kitchen.
|The Palace Agubio (Palača Agubio)|
|On the left of the street of Diocletian, in one of the narrow lanes, is the Agubio palace, of second half of the 15th century. It belonged to a commercial rich person ennobled later, Giovanni Battista de Gubbio.|
The Agubio Palace is characterized by a mixture of late Gothic elements (its gate richly decorated, 15th century) and elements Renaissance (its interior court); the name of the owner of origin is carved under the weapons of the family. The sculptures were allotted to Andrija Aleši, the most famous pupil of the workshop of Georges the Dalmatian one.
|The Palace Papalić (Palača Papalić)|
|On the line of the street Diocletian, in the street Papalićeva, is the Papalić palace which is the most important example of Gothic architecture in Split.|
This palace of the 15th century was built by the family Papalić, a family originating in the “Republic of Poljica” close to Omiš, arrival in Split at the beginning of the 14th century; it was one of the oldest families and most eminent of Split. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, Papalić acquired several Romance houses and joined together them to create this palace of two stages; houses in the southern part were demolished to give way to the interior court of the Palace.
This sumptuous blazing palace of Gothic style (gotico fiorito) was designed by Georges the Dalmatian one (Juraj Dalmatinac, † 1473), architect and sculptor originating in project superintendent Split and principal of the cathedral of Šibenik; details of architecture carry the distinctive mark of its workshop. Georges the Dalmatian one had carried out before his death the small palace of the Papalić family located street Šubič.
One penetrates in the Palace by a luxuriously decorated Gothic gate; on the pediment above gate the armorial bearings of Papalić are, including the stylized shapes of a wing of bird and a star with eight branches, framed by a vegetable reason for open sheets.
The gate opens on a beautiful court with a well. The ground floor is simple and without ornaments, because it was used as storage space for the wine, oil and other products. East of the court, a worked external staircase leads to the loggia with four columns of the first stage; one penetrates in the noble stage (piano nobile) by a decorated door. The principal big room presents a coffered ceiling out of wooden of Gothic style; she is lit by imposing and splendid window with four Gothic arches (“will quadrifora”).
The Papalić Palace became a place of meeting for the humanistic ones of Split; Dmine Papalić (Dominicus Papalis) held municipal loads in Split and was also military commander; he was a friend of the poet Marko Marulić; both gathered a collection of Roman antiquities discovered in Salona.
|The Museum of the Town of Split (Muzej Graded Splita)|
|The Museum of the Town of Split is in a set of medieval buildings located in the north-eastern quadrant of the Palace of Diocletian; in fact however the Papalić Palace constitutes the heart of the Museum, with most showrooms and the space of storage located in the part is Palace. The administration of the museum is in the south-western part. The visit of the Museum of the City makes it possible to represent the interior architecture of the palace; the museum comprises another court besides the interior court of the Papalić Palace.|
The historical Museum of the Town of Split comprises three levels:
- The ground floor is devoted to the concise collections.
- The first stage presents a permanent collection of objects recalling the period going the 12th century to the 14th century, when Split was politically independent, among which the seals and the stamps of the city, as well as the manuscript of the statutes of the city (1395). The dining room on the first floor is furnished just like it would have been it when the Papalić family lived in the Palace, giving an exact impression of the aristocratic life style to the 15th century.
- On the second floor one finds the collections of old weapons used for the defense of the city between 15th and 17th centuries, as well as an exposure on Split to the 19th century. To note that certain interior walls of the Museum - visible on the second floor - are walls of origin of the Palace of Diocletian.
The Gallery Emanuel Vidović - located in another building, Queen Helene Places, vis-a-vis the Peristyle - fact also part of the municipal Museum: it presents works of this painter of the 20th century (1870-1953), originating in Split. He donated at the town of this collection of oil-base paints.
Museum of the City (Muzej Graded Splita)
Addresses: Papalićeva 1, HR-21000 Split.
Telephone: 00,385 (0) 21 34 49 17
Summer times: from May to September, Tuesday to Friday, 9:00 at 19:00; Saturday to Monday, 9:00 at 16:00
Winter times: from October to April, Tuesday to Friday, 10:00 at 17:00; Saturday to Monday, 10:00 at 13:00
Tariff of entry: 10 kunas.
|The Street Krešimir (Krešimirova Ulica)|
|The street Krešimir takes again the layout of the western part of old the decumanus Roman; it leads Peristyle to the Iron Gate in the Western wall of the Palace of Diocletian. The street name comes from the name of Croatian king Petar Krešimir IV, known as the Large one, which integrated the town of Split into the kingdom of Croatia. It is a very commercial, encumbered street stores and coffees.|
|The Palace Cindro (Palača Cindro)|
|In the Street Krešimir, is the palace Cindro, one of the most beautiful examples of palace baroques of Split (17th century). At the ground floor of the palace a vast atrium is. The beautiful frontage of the palace can with difficulty be admired because of the narrowness of the street Krešimir.|
The Cindro family was one of the most former families of Split; she took part notably in all the wars against the Turks. It is interesting to note that it is precisely the Cindro palace which the Marmont Marshal chooses like residence, at the time of his stay in Split at the beginning of the 19th century, as a governor of the Illyrian Provinces during the French occupation.
|The Street Master-Georges (Majstora Jurja Ulica)|
|By going up the street Diocletian in the direction of the Door of Gold, a roofed passageway on the left - right before the Gold Gate - joined the street Master-Georges dedicated to the main sculptor Georges the Dalmatian one. This lane is bordered of palace to small the picturesque courses.|
|The Street Rodrigo (Rodrigina Ulica)|
|On the left of Majstora Jurja Ulica extends the old Jewish ghetto: the street Rodrigina, which leaves on the left at the end of the street Master-Georges, points out the memory of Daniel Rodrigo, a Jew originating in Portugal which obtained from Venice the right to establish in 1579 a free port with Spalato; this port enriches the Jews by the trade by goods between the Othoman territories by Balkans and Venice. The hospital of the old port in front of the southern frontage of the Palace of Diocletian, built at the origin for the victims of the plague, was transformed into warehouses for the caravans coming from Balkans; the hospital continued to also be used as zone of forty for the drivers caravans. The synagog of rite sépharade was just north of the Iron Gate; in 1573, a Jewish cemetery was created on the slopes of the hill of Marjan.|
|The Statue of the Bishop Gregory of Nin (Kip Biskupa Grgura Ninskog)|
|While leaving the Palace of Diocletian by the Gold Gate, one is vis-a-vis a monumental statue, 8.3 m height, which draws up a finger imprecator. This statue represents the bishop Gregory of Nin (Grgur Ninski) who required the replacement of Latin by the Croatian slavon in the catholic liturgy in Croatia.|
Gregory of Nin was bishop of Nin and chancellor of the Croatian kingdom from 900 to 929. At the time of a synod in Split, in 925, he was opposed to the decision of the pope to use Latin in the local liturgy, and translated the missal of the Roman rite in the Slavic language and preached the glagolitic adoption of the alphabet. This initiative of Gregory of Nin irritated papacy: at the time of a second synod, held in Split into 928, the diocese of Nin was dissolved and attached to that of Split, and Gregory of Nin was affected with the diocese of Skradin. Gregory of Nin lost also the title of “Primacy of Dalmatian” (Primas Dalmatiae) who was granted to the successors of the bishops of the diocese of Salona. The use of Slavic in the liturgy was prohibited, but it seems that the glagolitique one continued to be used until the 14th century.
|The bronze statue of Gregory of Nin is a work of Ivan Meštrović carried out in 1929 to commemorate the millenium of the second synod of Split. The statue was initially installed on the Peristyle of the Palace of Diocletian - where its dimensions were to be impressive. In 1941, the statue was moved outside the city by the Italian occupying forces which regarded it as a symbol of Croatian nationalism. The statue of Gregory of Nin was drawn up north of palace in 1957.|
The statue of Gregory of Nin is in a very attended tourist site of Split, with the approach of the Gold Gate. The bronze statue, entirely of color verdigris, presents a big toe of the polished left foot and very shining: a superstition - of unknown origin - wants indeed that to rub the big toe of the statue happiness carries to the passers by.
|Ruins of the Monastery Benedictine (Benediktinski Samostan)|
|Vast whole of the monastery Benedictine Saint-Rainier (Benediktinski Samostan Svetog Arnira) it remains only one bell-tower of Renaissance style and the ruins. These ruins are along the northern wall of the Palace of Diocletian, near the statue of Gregory of Nin.|
The Saint-Benoît monastery of Split (Monasterium sancti Benedicti Spalatensis/Samostan svetog Benedikta) had been founded around 1060 by the bishop Lawrence the Dalmatian one (Lovro Dalmatinac) (bishop of Split of 1059 to 1099) who was itself monk Benedictine. The monastery took the name of Monastery Saint-Rainier (Monasterium sancti Rainerii Spalatensis/Samostan Svetog Rajnerija) after the death of the bishop of Split Rainier (Rajnerije or Arnir); the bishop was lapidated in 1080 by the pirates of Omiš, Kačić, because of a territorial conflict, and was buried in the Saint-Benoît church of the monastery Benedictine.
The monastery of Bénédictines was transformed into military hospital by the French authorities of occupation in 1806, and was formally dissolved in 1807-1808. The moniales bénédictines found refuge with the Saint Mary monastery of Zadar, carrying with them the monastic archives.
The monastery was destroyed by a fire in 1877. One can still see the foundations of the church préromane Saint-Benoît (Crkva Svetog Benedikta), or Holy-Euphémie church (Crkva Svete Eufemije), of the 11th century and the vestiges of the small chapel Saint-Rainier, of the 15th century. Behind the glass doors of the vault, one sees a copy of a furnace bridge carried out in 1444 by Georges the Dalmatian one (Juraj Dalmatinac), now preserved in the church of Kaštel Lušić.
|The Garden Strossmayer (Štrossmajerov Park)|
|The Bastion Contarini (Branik Contarini)|
|The bastion Contarini (Branik Contarini) belonged to the fortifications built at the 17th century by the Venetian ones to defend the town of Spalato against the Turkish threat. The bastion is a massive fortification which is vis-a-vis the north-eastern tower of the Palace of Diocletian and which was used for reinforcing it. The bastion owes its name with the hundredth doge de Venise, Carlo Contarini (1580-1656).|
There exists a bastion equivalent to the west, the bastion Cornaro (Branik Cornaro), on the other side of the municipal park Strossmayer, vis-a-vis the tower of the North-West.
|The Ethnographic Museum (Etnografski muzej)|
|To go to the ethnographic Museum.|
|The Chapel Our-Lady-of-Belfry (Crkva Gospe od Zvonika)|
|The chapel Our-Lady-of-Belfry, also named chapel Saint-Theodore (Crkva Svetog Teodora), was built with Xe century above the door of the west (Iron Gate) of the Palace of Diocletian, as above other doors of the Palace, except the Bronze Gate in the south. The chapel names Our-Lady-of-Belfry (Gospa od Zvonika) because of its proximity with the turn-clock.|
The bell-tower of the Lombardic type of this small chapel is the oldest Romance bell-tower of Dalmatia (around the year 1100); the interior of the chapel is of a great simplicity, with however a furnace bridge baroque and a Byzantine icon dating from the 11th century, and the murals carried out by Meneghello in 1412.
One reaches the chapel by a staircase which goes up on the left of the Iron Gate (Željezna vrata).
|The National Place (Narodni Trg)|
|The National Place is the second core of Split, that around whose the city extended as from the 13th century. The place was mentioned for the first time in 1255 under the name of Place Saint Lawrence (Trg svetog Lovre): it was indeed a small St. Lawrence chapel there disappeared today. But, rather than by its official name, the splitois indicate it by that of Pjaca (which decides “piatsa”), of Italian piazza - the place was named Piazza San Lorenzo under the Venetian domination, or Piazza dei Signori.|
The National Place is located west of palace of Diocletian; the two historical centres, the old one, the Peristyle - much smaller - and the new one, Pjaca, are connected by the Street Krešimir which crosses the western wall with the Iron Gate (Željezna Vrata).
Pjaca - paved white and glossed “marble” - was as from the 15th century the political and economic center of the Venetian city, where were the Palace of the Vice-chancellor (Palazzo del Rettore) and the Town hall (Municipio) of 1443; of these Gothic buildings which closed the northern side of the place, only the old Town hall is preserved. Except the Town hall, it remains on Pjaca one another building in the Venetian Gothic style: the Cambi Palace of the 15th century, at the north-western end of the place, at the entrance of Bosanska Ulica.
The passage of time and the devastations of the war almost erased the Venetian style, but the place still preserves an attractive aspect, with a curious contrast between the atmosphere of a Mediterranean small town and a place with the mode. It is still today, the principal place of contemporary Split, where the Bohemian youth of Split in a certain number of animated coffees is found.
|The Old Town hall (Stara Gradska Vijećnica)|
|The old Town hall of Spalato is drawn up in the middle of the northern side of the National Place. Inaugurated in 1443 in a flowered Gothic style (gotico fiorito), the Town hall (Municipio) is very recognizable with its loggia of the ground floor with triple arcade and its Gothic windows.|
The Town hall is on its northern frontage a soldier of the city, appearing the Palace of Diocletian and the bell-tower of the cathedral; by making the turn of the building, one notices on the southern frontage, the walled door of the former post office and the words “Letter-box” engraved in the French stone: it is about a vestige of the postal network created by the Marmont general.
After destruction caused with the wire of the centuries, the Town hall was increased, and was restored starting from 1820 at the end of the 19th century in a neo-gothic style. From 1924 to 2005, the building sheltered the Museum ethnographic of Split, now transferred inside the walls from the Palace from Diocletian. The old Town hall accommodates temporary exhibitions today.
|In the south-east of the National Place, on the narrow lane Under the Clock (Ulica Ispod RUE) driving with the Iron Gate, draws up a house-turn. This house faces the Ciprianis palace and is right in front of the Romance bell-tower of the chapel Our-Lady-of-Belfry.|
This tower of Romance style, capped with a small Gothic bell-tower, carries the clock of the town of Split since the 15th century. The dial of the turn-clock is a 24 hour old dial.
|The Palace Ciprianis (Palača Ciprianis)|
|The Palace Ciprianis (Palača Ciprianis) is with the south-eastern angle of the National Place, in the south of the tower of the clock. This palace of late Romance style was built at the end of the 14th century for the count Cipriano de Ciprianis, descendant of an influential aristocratic family of Split and duke of Korčula.|
The Ciprianis-Benedetti Palace present at the first stage of superb windows with six openings with a double line of elegant columns which were found and rebuilt a few decades ago.
One also notices the statue of saint Antoine who represents the count de Ciprianis knelt in prayer in the dress of the saint. Just above the statue, a low-relief shows a disputing couple: it is about an older sculpture, used in re-employment as it was often the case in the buildings of the city. Below the statue the date of construction of the Palace is engraved, 1394.
|The Church of the Holy Spirit (Crkva Svetog Duha)|
|The church of the Holy Spirit (Sveti Duh) is a Gothic church interesting for its gate with a Romance low-relief representing Christ on a throne; the interior shows tomb stones, in particular that of the tomb of the architect, painter and sculptor of the 15th century Andrija Aleši (Andrea Alessi, 1425-1505). To join the church of the Holy Spirit since Narodni Trg, to borrow the Street Domald (Domaldova ulica) and to continue until the intersection with Cosmijeva ulica.|
|The Street Šubić (Šubićeva Ulica)|
|The street Šubič (Šubićeva Ulica) extends towards the south, since the western end of Narodni Trg until the Place of the Radić Brothers. The street Šubič owes its name to the very former Croatian noble family of the counts Šubić. The street is bordered of many palaces, in particular: who on the line is the small Papalić palace of late Venetian Gothic style (15th century), built by Georges the Dalmatian one (Juraj Dalmatinac in Croatian, Giorgio Orsini in Italian); the palace Tartaglia baroque is a little further in the street.|
|The Place of the Brothers Radić (Trg Braće Radić)|
|Since the National Place one joined the Place of the Radić Brothers by borrowing the Street Šubić.|
The Place of the Radić Brothers is more commonly named the Place with the Fruits (Voćni Trg), its old name, because, until in the years 1960, it was held to with it the large market with the fruit and vegetables which is nowadays east of Palais of Diocletian. The place is dedicated to the brothers Stjepan and Antun Radić, two Croatian patriots who founded in 1904 the Country Party of the Croatian People, opposed with the Magyar domination on Croatia. The place was formerly named Place of the Rebirth (Trg Preporoda).
Smaller than the National Place, the Radić Place is a medieval place dominated by the statue of Marko Marulić and the Tower of Hrvoje in south-west; on its northern side is the Milesi Palace.
|The Statue of Marko Marulić (Kip Marka Marulića)||The Palace Milesi (Palača Milesi)||The Tower of Hrvoje (Hrvojeva Kula)|
|With the center of the Place of the Radić Brothers - in front of the Milesi Palace - is held the statue of Marko Marulić. This monumental bronze statue represents the poet splitois holding a book; the statue was carried out in 1924 by Ivan Meštrović; it is engraved of worms of the poet Tin Ujevićin, drawn from its famous sonnet “Oproštaj” (the Good-bye).|
The poet Marko Marulić (1450-1524) was born in Split, in a palace close to the Papalić Palace of which he will become besides the friend of the sons of the family. Born 30 years years after the beginning from the Venetian domination on Split (1420), Marko Marulić wrote the first epic poem in language Croatian, “Judith” (Judita) - writing in 1501 and printed in 1521 - inspired of the fight against the Othoman Turks who invaded the Croatian grounds at that time. Marko Marulić wrote in Croatian and Italian (Marco Marulo), but also in Latin under the name of Marcus Marulus. One regards Marko Marulić as the father of the literature and the Croatian Rebirth; a circle the humanistic ones was constituted around him and of Dmine Papalić.
|On the northern side of the Place of the Radić Brothers, draws up the Milesi Palace; this palace baroque was built at the beginning of the 17th century by the old Milesi family. Its frontage, harmonious and balanced, still preserves characteristics of the Renaissance style. The Milesi Palace is nowadays the property of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.||At the 15th century, the town of Split was threatened by the Turks; the Venetian ones built new fortifications, of which the Tower of Hrvoje (Torre di Ervoia), still called tower of the Venetian manor house (Kaštel), built in 1435 to protect the sea front from the raids Turkish.|
The Tower of Hrvoje, or Tower of the Navy (Torrione della Marina), is an octagonal tower - a vestige of the Venetian citadel - which closes the Place of the Radić Brothers on the side of the sea front (Riva). Being next to the tower a small door led to the sea.
The tower owes its name with the round of applause of Croatia, large duke of Bosnia and duke of Split, Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (around 1350-1416).
The tower shelters today a small coffee, the “ACE”.
|The Street Marmont (Marmontova Ulica)|
|The Street Marmont marks the limit west of the Venetian old city; she was baptized name of the marshal Auguste de Marmont who was - among others - governor-general of the Illyrian Provinces of the First French Empire, of 1809 to 1811. During its short stay, Marmont undertook the modernization of the town planning of Split while making cut down the ramparts; the old Venetian ramparts gave way to these modern axes that are the street Marmont or Riva, and with arranged parks where are today Procuraties.|
From 1807 to 1813, the French governor-generals of the Illyrian Provinces also reformed the civil code and supported the use of the Croatian language. The Napoleonean administration - that of Marmont, in particular - left an excellent memory as the name of this broad mall with the brilliant paving stones attests some; Marmontova Ulica is the large commercial street of Split: it is there that one finds the shops of the world famous brands and other fast-food industries, but few typical trade, except north of the street.
In north, the street Marmont joined the street King Tomislav (Ulica Kralja Tomislava) in front of one of the last octagonal bastions of the Venetian fortifications.
|The Fish market (Ribarnica)|
|By going up the street Marmont towards north, the nostrils are struck by an odor of tide: on the line of the street the place Kraj Svete Marije is which accommodates the Fish market (Ribarnica) and the Thermal baths of the town of Split (Splitske Toplice).|
Under this market hall, the stalls abound in the night fishery products: fresh fish fished locally and seafood. Animation is with its roof early the morning, and especially Friday.
A legend wants that the sulfur vapors of the Thermal baths, located just at side, move away the flies from the Fish market.
The Market is open Monday to Saturday, 7:00 at 13:00; Sunday, of 7:00 to 11:00
|Procuraties are buildings of style néo-Rebirth, frames at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, under monarchy Austro-Hungarian, to lodge the municipal services of Split - the name of Procuraties comes from the Roman procurateurs, administrators of the Empire named by the emperor. These buildings were built with the site where parks arranged by the Marmont marshal were.|
Procuraties surround a vast place, the Place of the Republic (Trg Republike), built on the model of the Place Saint Mark in Venice: facing the sea, the place is bordered of buildings with arcades and the elegant orange, and decorated frontage heads of Venetian lions. The Place of the Republic accommodates in summer of the festivals of music.
|The Croatian National theater (Hrvatsko Narodno Kazalište)|
|North of the Place of the Republic, on the great place, the building of the Croatian National theater is. This theater was built of 1891 to 1893 by the architects Vecchietti and Bezić; the harmonious building is without ornaments, except for a group of statues, on the second floor, representing arts.|
Very damaged by a fire in 1971, the theater - often named by its initial HNK - was restored with taste: its frontage raises the splendid yellow color of Habsbourg.
Beside the theater, north of the Place Gaje Bulata, is the church Our Lady of Health (Gospe od Zdravlja).
Addresses: Trg Gaje Bulata 1
Telephone: 00,385 (0) 21,344,999