The national park of Krka in Croatia
|The National park of Krka (Nacionalni park Krka) was created in 1985 to protect the exceptional interest from the natural heritage - mainly intact - and cultural of the valley of Krka. The characteristic of its natural phenomena, the wealth of its preserved ecosystems, its flora and its fauna justified this protection.|
It is the seventh National park of Croatia.
|The National park of Krka occupies the higher and average courses of the river. It is with about twenty kilometers north of Šibenik, 76 km east of Zadar and 93 km in the North-West of Split.|
|The National park of Krka surrounds - on 45 kilometers - the higher course and the middle price of the Krka river: it starts in north to 2 km downstream Knin, close to the source of the river, and finishes in the south with Skradin; the Park includes also the lower course of the small Čikola river which joins Krka little before the falls of Skradin. The surface of the Park is of 109 km².|
The Park is mainly intended for the activities scientific, cultural, educational and entertaining. The seven series of cascades of the Krka river - and especially those of Skradinski Buk and Roški Slap - constitute its principal tourist attraction. For that it has various pedestrian paths, with wood runways along the formations of cascades, and beautiful terraces to contemplate the greatest falls; one also finds there a museum ethnographic and restaurants. Excursions in boats are also proposed.
Three entries give access to the park: the village of Skradin, the main entrance of Lozovac and Roški Slap, upstream and nearer to the famous small island of Visovac and its Franciscan monastery.
|The Roman Camp of Burnum|
|The ruins of the Roman military camp of Burnum are located on Right Bank of the Krka river, close to the current village of Ivoševci, above falls of Manojlovac.|
The camp was established at the beginning of the first century, at a strategically important place to control the passage of the Krka river; it was the starting point of all the military campaigns towards the areas of the interior, until the limits north of the Roman Empire. The 11th Roman legion was stationed in this camp; later, it was replaced there by the 4th legion “Flavia Felix”.
Today, the ruins of the arches of the building of the “pretoria” (commandery of the camp, which sheltered the Praetorian guard) are still visible. Recent research put at the day a large amphitheater and a great quantity of archaeological material which suggests that the camp was established under the reign of the emperor Claude, and was increased later under that of the Vespasien emperor, towards 76 after J. - C. After the departure of the army, a city (municipium) was created here because of the infrastructures already in place; she played a significant role on Right Bank of Krka until late Antiquity. The city had a large sanctuary, an amphitheater (in the course of restoration), an aqueduct, paved roads and other urban constructions. Many keen battles were delivered along its walls. At the end of the 5th century, for the period of the wars Gothic-Byzantine, the city was taken by the Ostrogothic ones; Burnum was destroyed into 639 during the avaro-Slavic invasions.
|The Fortress of Nečven|
|The medieval fortress Nečven was set up at the edge of a cliff on left bank of the Krka river. It was rested by the family Nelipić, the lords of the whole of the area of Promin-Miljevac. The fortress remained their property until 1421, date on which it passed between the hands of the noble family of Martinušić. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Turks conquered Nečven and preserved until 1688 it.|
The Turks brought their soldiers to it, and made of it the seat of the nahija (administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire) of Krka and the kadiluk (center legal), and later of a sandjak (district). After the departure of the Turks, Nečven was set fire to and with destroyed half; it was abandoned one century later.
|The Fortress of Trošenj|
|The medieval fortress of Trošenj, also named Čučevo, had been set up with the Middle Ages on Right Bank of the Krka river, just at the edge of the throats, opposite the fortress of Nečven which was on left bank; a suspended bridge connected the two fortresses; it was destroyed in 1649.|
Trošenj was at the origin in the possession of the powerful family of Šubić, which reigned on all Right Bank of the Krka river. The fortress had been built probably to protect and control the bridge of strategic importance which crossed the river.
The Turkish army seized Trošenj in 1522; they built a round tower and used the fortress like prison. The conquest of the area by Venetian army in 1686 drove out the Turks; most of the fortress was destroyed.
Nowadays, one can see the well preserved remainders of the round tower with part of the high walls and the traces of a single apartment building.
|The Monastery Saint Michael Archangel (Samostan svetog Arkanđela Mihaila)|
|To go to the Monastery of Krka.|
|The Fortress of Bogočin|
|The ruins of the medieval fortress of Bogočin, also named Vilin grad, the “fairy-like city”, are on left bank of the Krka river, upstream of the cascade of Roški Slap, on a raised rock, close to the village of Bogatić.|
Bogočin was probably built by the noble family of Nelipić and, later, was ordered by the powerful family of Martinušić. A single medieval road, in the North-East, - preserved very well - led to Bogočin, and one could penetrate the fortress only by one drawbridge. Its strategic importance was due to the fact that it made it possible to control the valley of Carigradska and the passage which was commonly called Vilin most (the bridge of the fairy).
However, at the beginning of the 16th century, Bogočin was taken by the Turks and remained with the hands of the Othomans until 1684.
|The Fortress of Rog|
|The fortress of Rog, known also under the name of Rogovo, was opposite the village of Kamičak, above cascades of Roški slap. The traces of its existence are almost invisible on the ground but it is registered on the chart of the 16th century of Mateo Pagano as one of the two opposite fortresses which were upstream small island of Visovac.|
|Cascades of Rog (Roški slapovi)|
|To go to the cascades of Roški Slap.|
|The Fortress of Kamičak|
|The few vestiges of the medieval fortress of Kamičak, also named Ramica, are on left bank of the Krka river, between Roški slap and the Lake Visovac, on the territory of Brištane, village of the plate of Miljevci.|
According to historical archives of 1345, the king croato-Hungarian Ludovik confirmed the right of Ivan Nelipić on the stronghold of Kamičak. The Turkish invasions then the occupation of all the area by the Turks involved the loss of importance of Kamičak: the fortress was abandoned.
Kamičak is also indicated under the name of Utješinovića Grad (the town of Uješinović) by the inhabitants of the area, because the first Croatian cardinal Juraj Uješinović, alias Frater Georgius, was born here in 1482. Was born also here Marko Mišljenović, who was named Ban of Croatia by the king croato-Hungarian Ladislav in 1506. The fortress owes especially its celebrity with the fact that, according to Frater Georgius, the last Croatian king, Petar Svačić, would have also been born there.
|The Tower of Uzdah (Uzdah kula)|
|The tower of Uzdah was a fortification which the Šubić family set up in order to control the road which connected Skradin to its back-country. It was the guard of their fields until 1512, when it was conquered by the Othomans who made use of it of prison.|
|The Franciscan Monastery of Visovac (Franjevački Samostan Visovac)|
|To go to the Monastery of Visovac.|
|The Fortress of Ključica|
|Ključica largest and is best preserved medieval fortresses of the National park of Krka; it is one of the medieval fortifications most important of Croatia.|
This citadel was set up at the 14th century, around 1330, by the noble family of Nelipić at the edge of the steep throats of the Čikola river in order to protect their grounds from the threats of their rivals, the noble family of Šubić. Because of its strategic position, Ključica was often a source of conflict for its Masters, Šibenčani.
In 1546, it was conquered by the Othomans who were the Masters here until 1648, when they were finally driven out. Since this date, Ključica is abandoned.
|The Village of Lozovac|
|It is close to the village of Lozovac that the main entrance of the National park of Krka is; it is by this entry that the great mass of the tourist buses and the individual visitors arrives. April in October, it is obligatory to park its car with the free carpark of the Park and to borrow the shuttles to join the entry of the Park, or to make the 800 m on foot which lead to the entry. The remainder of the year, one can go to the cascades of Skradin with its car.|
The entry of Lozovac also the entry which at the same time makes it possible to visit the cascades of Skradinski Buk and to leave in excursion on board boats to see the other important cascades of the Park, those of Roški Slap, as well as the lake and the monastery of Visovac:
Excursion n° 1 to the Franciscan monastery on the small island of Visovac; 2 hours duration, with a 30 minutes stop in Visovac.
Excursion n° 2 until Roški Slap; duration of 3:30, with a 30 minutes stopover in Visovac.
|The Ethnographic Museum of Krka|
|The tariff of entry of the National park of Krka includes the visit of a small ethnographic museum which takes the shape of a typical Dalmatian village with its perfectly restored stone-built houses. The museum is between the entry of Skradin and the entry of Lozovac, near as of cascades of Skradinski Buk. One finds there a bar-restaurant with shaded tables and a souvenir shop; country-women settle there sometimes to sell their local products.|
This museum of arts and popular traditions accommodates the visitors in traditional costume and presents a typical dwelling of the area, with the ustensils of formerly, as well as a kitchen and a forging mill old, and a workshop of Tisserand.
|The museum understands a series of water mills to grind the grains with old, of the vats to wash the linen or the wool, a fuller with hydraulic power to beat and degrease wool after weaving.|
|Cascades of Skradin (Skradinski buk)|
|To go to the cascades of Skradin.|
|The Hydroelectric station of Krka|
|The hydroelectric station of Krka was the first hydroelectric station of Croatia and Eastern Europe. This power station of production of continuous electric current - built out of travertine stones - was commissioned after the construction of the transport lines and the network with low tension of the town of Šibenik; its promoters were indeed the mayor of Šibenik, Ante Šupuk, his son Marko Šupuk and engineer Vjekoslav Meichsner; the lights of the city clarified on August 26th, 1895. Šibenik thus received electric lighting before many European cities like Vienna, Budapest, Rome, London and well of others.|
The hydroelectric stopping of Krka was the second hydroelectric stopping of its kind in the world. The first had been built on the Niagara river by American engineer Forbes, but - likes to point out the pride Croatian - based on the plans and the patents of Nikola Tesla, Serb of Croatia. The stopping of the Niagara had been commissioned two days only before the stopping of Krka; however, the town of Buffalo started to receive the energy of this stopping only at the start of 1896 after the transport lines of electricity had been completed.
In 1895, the hydroelectric stopping of Krka generated 235 kw of power; another generator was added in 1899, which increased the power to approximately 470 kw, with a maximum water flow of 3.2 m³ /s. This first hydroelectric station of Krka, named Jaruga I, remained in service to the First World War. It is today in the course of restoration to allow its conservation and its presentation the public.
Ten years later, Ante Šupuk made build a second hydroelectric station, Jaruga II, located a hundred meters downstream from the first; additional turbines were installed in 1936. The power station Jaruga II is always under operation today.
|The Village of Skradin|
|The village of Skradin is located at 23 km north of the town of Šibenik, at the southern end of the National park of Krka. It is old Scardona of the Romans: one can see there the preserved remainders of the ancient aqueduct of the Roman city.|
The small marina of Skradin is in a meander of the Krka river which merges here with an arm of the sea deeply inserted in the coast and forming the Lake Proklan. It is since this port that one can go up the river, on board shuttles of the National park, to the entry of the Park located at the bottom of cascades of Skradin.
|Except season - when the boat-shuttles are not yet in service - one can on foot join the Park or with bicycle by taking the pedestrian path which skirts the Krka river on 3 km to the cascades of Skradinski Buk.|
With the return, one will be able to taste, with the tavern Bonaca, the fish of Skradin to the particular taste, because fished in mid--salted, semi-soft water of the estuary of Krka.
|The Fortress of Bribir|
|The fortress of Bribir is with 14 kilometers in the North-West of Skradin - apart from the limits of the National park. At the time of the reign of the duke Šubić were built close to Bribir the Saint John church and the Franciscan monastery with its Saint Mary church, where the skin of the duke Šubić is. The fortress of Bribir had a strategic nature with the Middle Ages since, with the fortress of Ostrovica, it controlled the important lane of Knin to Zadar.|
|Flora and Fauna of the National park of Krka|
|Because of its situation, with the junction of the dinaric Alps and Adriatic littoral with the Mediterranean climate or subméditerranéen, and diversity of its types of habitats - heats and dry or wet and shaded -, the valley of Krka has an exceptionally rich and varied flora and a fauna.|
The flora present in the National park of Krka does not count less than 860 vegetable species or subspecies, among which several species of illyriennes-Adriatic endemic plants, in particular of the species - clean with the throats and the cascades - which push on the travertine barriers.
|The fauna of the National park is quite as rich with 220 listed animal species.|
Eighteen fish species populate the Krka river, of which ten are endemic, inter alia the gougeon Dalmatian barbel, or aulopyge of Hügel (Aulopyge huegelii) and protée the anguillard (Proteus anguinus), called “human fish”, which lives in groundwaters of the park and which is threatened.
In the places where the river changes into small lakes and in the zones of reeds many Amphibians live. The Park shelters also 22 species of reptiles - including 11 species of snakes - which concentrate in the stony coppices (underwood) and grounds; two species of tortoises meet there: a tortoise of small size (from 14 to 20 cm), the cistude of Europe (Emys orbicularis) and the tortoise of Hermann (Testudo hermanni).
|The lake parts, the immersed roselières and meadows shelter 222 species of birds, in particular at the migratory seasons of spring and the autumn, where the Krka river plays a particularly important part. The Park counts many carnivorous birds: the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the circaète Short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus), the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the eagle of Bonelli (Aquila fasciata), the falcon lanier (Falco biarmicus) and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).|
Among the 46 species of mammals, the otter is distinguished, as well as the bats: the Park counts of them 18 species, of which some are in process of extinction in the rest of Europe.
|The Tourist office (Turistička zajednica)|
|Male Trg Gospe 3 - HR-22222 Skradin|
Telephone: 00,385 (0) 22,771,306
|The Office of the National park of Krka|
|Trg Ivana Pavla II Br. 5 - HR-22000 Šibenik|
Telephone: 00,385 (0) 22,201,777
|Schedules of visit:|
The National park of Krka is opened to the visitors all the year:
- in January, February, November and December: 9:00 at 16:00; tariff of entry (adult): 30 kunas.
- in March, April, May and October: 9:00 at 17:00; tariff of entry: 80 kunas.
- in June, July, August and September: 9:00 at 18:00; tariff of entry: 95 kunas.
Admission free for the veterans of the patriotic war.
It at least takes 3:00 to visit the park, or the day by including the small island of Visovac.
The tickets of entries and the tickets of excursions in boats can be obtained at all the entries of the National park of Krka: Skradin, Lozovac and Roški Slap.
Buses coming from Šibenik serve Skradin and Lozovac, in 15 min.