Flora of the island of Cabrera in Majorca
|The thick vegetation of the National Park of the Cabrera archipelago is formed by species typical of Mediterranean vegetation such as wild olive trees, junipers and pines, but also a significant number of endemic species. Across the flora of Cabrera is found a significant representation of the flora of the Balearic with more than 460 species including thirty that are endemic or unique to the Balearic or to Cabrera, 5 are endemic to Cabrera as buckthorn Balearic. |
|The vegetation is highly variable in composition and appearance depending on the exposure of the islands to the sun and storms.|
The surrounding area of the castle is covered with mastic pistachio and oleaster, as well as éphèdres and euphorbia. Among the neighboring rocks, you can see an interesting endemic species: the Balearic wort (Hypericum balearicum).
The coastal loop, which in smaller islands includes any extension tip is formed by small groves can withstand the spray of seawater It is here that we find the most interesting of the endemic Islands such as shrubs appearance thorny bushes adapted to the wind and the proximity of the sea (Launaea cervicornis, Teucrium subspinosum) and sea lavender (Limonium sp.). In this habitat, are both endemic plants of the National Park: the caprariense Limonium and Rubia angustifolia ssp. caespitosa. Some islands are called with the name of exclusive varieties found there, as is the case with "Ses Bledes".
The holm oak wood, which grows only on the islands of greater extension, may have two different types. On the most rocky layers, the holm oak wood is mainly formed of wild olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) and mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), and to a lesser extent savin (Juniperus phoenicea) and ephedra (Ephedra fragilis). In some places, the dominant species are the tree spurge (Euphorbia dendroides), which brings a touch of red at the end of spring, and the Balearic boxwood (Buxus Balearica), which is typical of Mallorca higher areas of the Serra de Tramuntana. On softer and eroded layers instead, the vegetation is lower, formed by the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis var. palaui), the heather (Erica multiflora) and Montpellier cistus (Cistus monspeliensis), with coverage pine (Pinus halepensis) to varying degrees. To areas with a greater tree cover, appears a more humid micro-habitat that allows the presence of shrubs such as strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo).
Two types of vegetation in the restricted distribution deserve special mention. First, the fissuricoles communities, which are flaws in the Jurassic limestone walls forming the rocky area. In these areas, there are small plants, often endemic to the Balearic Islands. Secondly, it should remember the sub-shrub association that grows only on some islands (S’Estell del Coll, S’Estell de Fora and the island of Ses Bledes) and is formed by rare species: a beet (Beta vulgaris var. marcosii) that outside these islands is found only in the homonymous Bledes Islands (the word "bleda" in Catalan means "chard"), located in the west of Ibiza and the tree lucerne (Medicago citrina), who lives in the same area and in Columbrete islands.
The human presence has also introduced non-native invasive species such as barberry and agave. Unfortunately, some of these species threaten the very existence of the native flora and fauna throughout the park.
|Wild asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius) (espareguera ruca, espareguera de ca / esparraguera triguera)||Ampelodesmos Mauritania (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus) (carritx)|
|The whole plant is covered with numerous feathery branches of dark green color. Wild asparagus is often wearing a vine. Lives in cool, shady places. It blooms in late summer.||Tall grass, the rough leaves to touch that can cut the skin of the hands if they are taken in hand carelessly.|
|Balearic astragalus (Astragalus balearicus [Chater]) (eixorba-rates negre, eriçons, gatovell, coixinet de monja, socorrela)||Many-flowered heather (Erica multiflora [Linnaeus]) (bruc d’hivern, xiprell / brezo, bruguera, ucre)|
|Dense and thorny bush and rounded whose leaves are divided into leaflets. Over time, the leaf rachis become thorns.||Plant with pink flowers all grouped at the ends of branches, and open in the fall. The plant has small leaves in groups of three.|
|Montpellier Rockrose (Cistus monspeliensis) (llimonenca steppe, steppe negra / estepa morisca, mosquera steppe, steppe negra jaguarzo negro)||Diplotaxis Ibiza (Diplotaxis ibicensis)|
|Montpellier cistus has white flowers and dark green leaves. Identification is easy because the leaves are elongated and have glands that give a characteristic odor and clinging fingers.||Grass standing tall that can reach half a meter high. It has deeply divided leaves with narrow lobes. The flowers are yellow and quite large.|
|Spurge scrubland (Euphorbia characias) (lletrera visquera, visc / euforbio mediterráneo)|
|Spurge large glands which the inflorescence are very dark brown. Abundant in the mountains and in clearings.|
|Spurge tree (Euphorbia dendroides) (lletrera / titímalo árbol)|
|Bushy plant that is characterized by loss of leaves during the summer, leaving the structure of bare branches during the warmer months, she finds new leaves in September.|
|Common fennel (Foeniculum vulgare [Linnaeus]) (fonoll / hinojo)||Baton common (Ferula communis [Linnaeus]) (canyaferla / cañaheja)|
|Fennel is one of the most common of abandoned fields and paths Umbelliferae. It is recognizable by its laciniate leaves and its greenish-yellow inflorescences.||The common ferrule is characterized by the fact of producing a massive inflorescence stem thick but light that can measure more than two meters high, exceeds the ilex wood and gives a unique accent to the landscape of Cabrera. Traditionally, it is picked for use in the fiestas of Santanyi, in which the demons were as scepter and withers.|
|Germander with heads (Teucrium capitatum) (farigola mascle, herba de Sant Ponç / polio tomillo macho zamarilla)||Globular bushy (Globularia alypum) (foixarda, fusellada, ullastró / coronilla de fraile)||Hellebore of Mallorca (Helleborus lividus) (palonia borda)|
|Small tuft of leaves and stems covered with white hair. Leaves, opposite, are weakly lobed at the edge. The flowers are grouped in small clusters and the flowers are pink or purple color.||Highly branched plant recognizable by its blue flowers clustered in heads. It blooms in the fall or winter.||Lies at the foot of the rocks in shady places. A leathery leaves divided into three leaflets. Flowers from late winter to early spring.|
|Immortal dunes (Helichrysum stoechas) (flor de mort, flor de Sant Joan / manzanilla bastarda, siempreviva)||Sea lily (Pancratium maritimum) (lliri blanc de mar, lliri of mar, lliri d’arenal, assutzena d’arenal / azucena marina)||Royal Mallow (Malva arborea Lavatera arborea) (malva, malvera, vauma / malva)|
|Plant leaves have a very distinctive smell (recalling the curry), the leaves are linear, small and whitish. The flowers are golden yellow color.||Lily sea has large white flowers in the middle of August. The leaves are elongated and twisted glaucous green, with a fairly stiff. It grows on the beaches.||Royal purple is different from other Malvaceae its size and because epicalyx is significantly longer than the calyx. Live in degraded environments and along ravines.|
|Yellow ononis (Ononis crispa) (motxa / gatuna)||Nice stonecrop (Sedum sediforme) (arrós de pardal, crespinell, pinyons rata / arroz moro, hierba puntera, uña de gato)|
|It is characterized by its very sticky to the touch leaves, the leaves have three or five gears. Carries some large yellow flowers at the top of the stems.||Species with bases slightly woody stems. The leaves are fleshy and pointed. The flowers are yellow and form the upper part of a fertile stem, which is covered by leaves less dense than the rest of the plant.|
|Sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) (card marí, card panical marí / cardo corredor marino)||Mallorca Peony (Paeonia cambessedesii [Willkom]) (peónia / peonia)||Phagnalon rocks (Phagnalon saxatile) (herba morenera, ullastre de frare / manzanilla yesquera)|
|Plant hard and pointed leaves light gray. The flowers are grouped in compact clusters can take bluish tints, as well as the leaves near the inflorescence. The plant has a rhizome which can dock with soil as furniture sand.||Perennial equipped with a bulb. The leaves are large and divided into leaflets. Purple flowers. Blooms in early spring. Live in shady places.||The leaves are linear with a clear color difference between the top and bottom. The flowers grow solitary on the stems.|
|Officinalis rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) (romaní / romero)|
|The leaves are linear, leathery, whitish because the top is covered with hair. The blue flowers have two well-marked lips. Can bloom throughout the year.|
|Sea rocket (Cakile maritima) (rave de mar, ravenissa de mar / oruga marítima, rucamar)||Street with narrow leaves (Ruta angustifolia) (ruta / ruta)||Scabiosa Crete (Scabiosa cretica) (col de penya, herba penyalera)|
|Herb beaches and sandy soils. It has purple flowers, and fruits vaguely reminiscent of an arrowhead, the leaves are shiny, plump and divided.||Woody at the base, foul. Develops a main erect stem, which ends with a branching and inflorescence of yellow flowers with long petals ciliates. The leaves are deeply divided.||Plant with lance-shaped leaves of light green color. The purple flowers are gathered in an inflorescence on a long stem.|
|Sea squill, maritime squill (Drimia maritima maritima Urginea) (ceba marina / cebolla albarrana, cebolla almorrana)|
|Cabrera waters are characterized by their transparency which allowed the development of important marine communities to a deep and well-structured manner.|
The funds are very different in terms of their depth, their slopes and bedrock. There are large expanses of sand, gravelly, rocks, cliffs and caves that provide habitat for many marine flora and fauna.
|Mediterranean Posidonia (Posidonia oceanica)|
|Much of the sandy bottom is covered by large Posidonia oceanica: marine plant flowers and fruits, endemic of the Mediterranean coast. It grows over the sandbanks close to the coast, almost from the surface to 35 m depth. A large number of crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms and fish live and breed among its leaves. Posidonia plays a key role in the oxygenation of the water and it helps to preserve the seabed and beaches from erosion produced by waves and currents.|
|Balearic box (Buxus balearica [Lamarck]) (boix / boj)|
|Shrub with oval leaves, glossy green, sometimes reddish or yellowish. The apex of the leaves can be tapped, which features easy to identify this plant. Its wood was used for its hardness.|
|Spurge olive (Cneorum tricoccon) (olivella, escanyacabres / olivillo)||Ephedra weak (Ephedra fragilis) (ginesta borda / belcho)|
|Shrub with elongated leaves often obtuse apex scoop. The flowers are yellow with three petals and fruits that are red when ripe, and the fruit has three parts, which gives its name to the plant (three hulls).||Highly branched shrub. Shaped leaves that small membranous scales placed on the nodes. The flowers are yellowish. This shrub is mainly found in coastal sites, but also inside, in stony places.|
|Wired narrow sheet (Phillyrea angustifolia) (aladern de fulla estreta, frangula, vern menuit / labiérnago blanco)||Phoenician juniper (Juniperus phoenicea) (savina, sivina / sabina)|
|Small shrub, much branched, with very narrow and elongated shaped spearhead leaves, the leaves are leathery and entire margin.||Red juniper is a bush which leaves in the form of scales that overlap one another, generally arranged in four rows. The fruits are spherical.|
|Butcher fake holly, holly breakfast (Ruscus aculeatus) (cirere de Betlem, cireretes del bon pastor, boix mascle, boix marí, brusc, llorer bord, galzeran / abrupt, arrayán morisco)|
|Small shrub which replaced the leaves flattened branches (rackets) true leaves are small and unobtrusive, solitary flowers greenish or purple, and red fruits are rounded.|
|Tree lucerne (Medicago citrina) (alfàls arbori)|
|Highly branched shrub with large trifoliate leaves, young shoots covered with hair. The flowers are lemon yellow.|
|Balearic buckthorn (Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris [Chodat]) (llampúgol, llampúdol bord / aladierno balear)||Wild olive (Olea europaea var. Sylvestris) (ullastre / acebuche)|
|Balearic buckthorn is a shrub endemic to the Balearic Islands which are found only on the islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Cabrera.|
Small shrub with leathery leaves, a very dark on top and much lighter green below. The teeth are perpendicular to the margin.
|The wild olive, or wild olive, has grayish above and white below almost green leaves arranged in pairs on the branches. These sheets can be very small and rounded on basal or lanceolate and shoots fine, up to 8 cm long, on the upper branches.|
|Pistacia lentiscus, the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus) (mata, llentiscle, llentrisca / lentisco)|
|Shrub into a tree and the mastic is abundant in the woods of pines and oaks. It is characterized by compound leaves with leaflets leathery, and the resinous odor.|
|Soda true (Suaeda vera) (salat vera)|
|Highly branched shrub with upper branches covered with small linear leaves and fleshy.|
Soda. Different texts speak of obtaining ashes were probably used to make soda. Formerly, we extracted the soda combustion of different plants belonging to the genus Suaeda and Salicornia, among others. The soda was used to get the bleach and soap.
A text of the eighteenth century speaks of the presence in an oven Cabrera apparently have served to make glass from soda ash, and other similar species.
|Withania frutescens (Withania frutescens) (bufera arbustiva, bufera, capseta)|
|Highly branched shrub. He lives in the bush of some islands of Mallorca of Ibiza and Formentera. The leaves are oval (wider at the base) and fall when summer arrives. It flowers in winter and spring.|
|The collection, destruction or alteration of elements of historical or geological archaeological interest, as well as specimens of animals and plants are prohibited within the National Park of Cabrera.|