Flora and fauna of Biokovo in Croatia

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The north of the solid mass of Biokovo. Click to enlarge the image.The North-East of the solid mass of Biokovo. Click to enlarge the image.South of the solid mass of Biokovo. Click to enlarge the image.The solid mass of Biokovo presents a rather arid and stripped aspect; however it abounds in many species different of plants and it is populated of an abundant and various fauna.

In particular, cavernicolous fauna conceals a true wealth with nearly 200 species of which more than 60 - relics of the tertiary Era - are endemic of Biokovo.

Herbaceous plantsHerbaceous plants

The bellflower of Biokovo, emblème of the Natural reserve. Click to enlarge the image.Because of its geographical location, the solid mass of Biokovo presents - at various altitudes - an alpine continental climate and a Mediterranean climate; for this reason of the various plant species, pertaining to these two climates coexist there. On the whole, one finds in Biokovo nearly 1500 species of plants, of which 25 are endemic species; most known of these rare endemic species are: the bellflower of Biokovo (Edraianthus pumilio) - which is the emblem of the Natural park -, the centaury of Biokovo (Centaurea biokovensis), the lancéolée centaury (Centaurea cuspidata [Screw]) and the glorious centaury (Centaurea gloriosa or Centaurea cuspidata ssp gloriosa [Radić]), which meet with higher altitudes.

The cyclamens, the centauries and the orchises of all species abound, such rare Ophrys snuffs (Ophrys will insectifera), as well as the “perunika”, the wild iris (Iris croatica) emblem of Croatia.

The Natural park understands several botanical reserves: the mount Saint Elias (Sveti Ilija), the Šibenik mount, the Štropac mount and the reserve of the mount Veliki Troglav which includes more the high summit of Biokovo, the mount Saint George (Sveti Jure).

Most of the plant species of Biokovo can be seen with the Botanical garden of Biokovo with Kotišina.

Bellflower of Biokovo (Edraianthus pumilio)Sweet clover (Lotus sp.)
Bellflower of Biokovo (Edraianthus pumilio). Click to enlarge the image.Sweet clover (Lotus sp.). Click to enlarge the image.Sweet clover (Lotus sp.). Click to enlarge the image.
Common Hélianthème (Helianthemum nummularium)
Common Hélianthème (Helianthemum nummularium). Click to enlarge the image.Common Hélianthème (Helianthemum nummularium). Click to enlarge the image.Common Hélianthème (Helianthemum nummularium). Click to enlarge the image.
Ornithogale of the mountains (Ornithogalum montanum)
Ornithogale of the mountains (Ornithogalum montanum). Click to enlarge the image.Ornithogale of the mountains (Ornithogalum montanum). Click to enlarge the image.Ornithogale of the mountains (Ornithogalum montanum). Click to enlarge the image in Fotolia (new tab).
Flax of Narbonne (Linum narbonense)Hedge mustard false-gillyflower (Erysimum sp.)Bindweed of Biscay (Convolvulus cantabrica)
Flax of Narbonne (Linum narbonense). Click to enlarge the image.Hedge mustard false-gillyflower (Erysimum sp.). Click to enlarge the image.Bindweed of Biscay (Convolvulus cantabrica). Click to enlarge the image.
Nigelle of Damas (Nigella damascena)Garlic with round head (Allium sphaerocephalon)
Nigelle of Damas (Nigella damascena). Click to enlarge the image.Nigelle of Damas (Nigella damascena). Click to enlarge the image.Garlic with round head (Allium sphaerocephalon). Click to enlarge the image in Fotolia (new tab).
Thorny Pallénis (Pallenis spinosa)
Thorny Pallénis (Pallenis spinosa). Click to enlarge the image.Thorny Pallénis (Pallenis spinosa). Click to enlarge the image.Thorny Pallénis (Pallenis spinosa). Click to enlarge the image.
Wild chicorey (Cichorium intybus)Broom of Spain (Spartium junceum)
Wild chicorey (Cichorium intybus). Click to enlarge the image.Wild chicorey (Cichorium intybus). Click to enlarge the image in Fotolia (new tab).Broom of Spain (Spartium junceum). Click to enlarge the image.
Ciliée Mélique (Melica ciliata)Sédum of Nice (Sedum sediforme)Meadow rue (Thalictrum sp.)
Ciliée Mélique (Melica ciliata). Click to enlarge the image.Sédum of Nice (Sedum sediforme). Click to enlarge the image.Meadow rue (Thalictrum sp.). Click to enlarge the image.
Plant to identify
Plant to identify. Click to enlarge the image.Plant to identify. Click to enlarge the image.

TreesTrees

A vegetable garden of altitude in a doline of Biokovo. Click to enlarge the image in Fotolia (new tab).The forests of Biokovo shelter beeches (forest reserve of Vošac), fir trees (forest reserve of Kimet-Sutvid) and pines black Dalmatian (Pinus will nigra subsp. dalmatica) (forest reserves of Bukovac, Borovik and Sibenik-Borovac).

At the bottom of the mountain, southern part, one also finds maple and the lime.

Charm-hops (Ostrya carpinifolia)Arborescent Baguenaudier (Colutea arborescens)
Charm-hops (Ostrya carpinifolia). Click to enlarge the image.Arborescent Baguenaudier (Colutea arborescens). Click to enlarge the image in Fotolia (new tab).
Wood of Saint Lucy (Prunus mahaleb)
Wood of Saint Lucy (Prunus mahaleb). Click to enlarge the image.Wood of Saint Lucy (Prunus mahaleb). Click to enlarge the image.
Punic pomegranate (Punica granatum)
Punic pomegranate (Punica granatum). Click to enlarge the image.Punic pomegranate (Punica granatum). Click to enlarge the image.

InsectsInsects and Arachnida

Saltique de Sloane (Philaeus chrysops)Xylomyia maculata (Xylomyia maculata)Carbuncle carbuncle (Carbuncle carbuncle)
Saltique de Sloane (Philaeus chrysops). Click to enlarge the image.Xylomyia maculata (Xylomyia maculata). Click to enlarge the image.Carbuncle carbuncle (Carbuncle carbuncle). Click to enlarge the image.
Orange Mélitée (Melitaea didyma)
Orange Mélitée (Melitaea didyma). Click to enlarge the image.Orange Mélitée (Melitaea didyma). Click to enlarge the image.Orange Mélitée (Melitaea didyma). Click to enlarge the image.

AnnélidésAnnélidés

BirdsBirds

The solid mass of Biokovo counts more than hundred species of birds, of which large raptors such as the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the circaète Jean-le-Blanc (Circaetus gallicus) - hunter of snakes -, the fawn-coloured vulture (Gyps fulvus) - in process of extinction - or the owl grand duke (Bubo bubo).

PoissonPoisson

ReptilesReptiles

Biokovo shelters 21 species of reptiles (vipers, grass snakes and lizards) and 7 species of protected Amphibians.
Grass snake of Balkans (Hierophis gemonensis)
Grass snake of Balkans (Hierophis gemonensis). Click to enlarge the image.

MammalsMammals

Among about thirty species of mammals indexed, one rather easily meets the chamois of Balkans (Rupicapra will rupicapra balcanica), and the Mediterranean moufflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), but the wolf is also present.

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