AlbaniaGermanyEnglandArmeniaBasque CountryBielorussiaBulgariaCataloniaCroatiaDenmarkSpainEstoniaFinlandFranceGaliciaWalesGeorgiaGreeceHungaryIrelandIcelandItalyRoman EmpireLatviaLithuaniaMacedoniaMaltaNorwayNetherlandsPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSwedenCzechiaUkraine
If you reached this frame directly, click on this link to reveal the menus.
Personalized search

The town of Marrakech

[Parent topics] [Next topics] [Home page] [Morocco] [Via Gallica]
Headings[Photos] [Presentation] [Situation] [Visits] [Culture] [Practical Information] [Other topics]Published page

PresentationPresentation

General presentationGeneral information
Chart. Click to enlarge the image.situation. Click to enlarge the image.Marrakech is a city of Morocco at the bottom of mountains of the Atlas.

The city is divided into two distinct parts: the Medina or historical city (10 kilometers of enclosure) and the new city whose principal districts are called: Guéliz and Hivernage. Guéliz constitutes the commercial downtown area today. It was rested by the French at the time of Protectorate. The district of the Wintering concentrates many hotel complexes. For a few years, the city has increased in periphery in particular in the West with the appearance of new residential districts as for the area of Targa or the extension of the Mohammed VI Avenue.

EtymologyEtymology
Arabic Marrakech (: Mûrrakûsh, مراكش) known under the name of Pearl of the South or Carry South and of red City or ocher City. In the past, entire Morocco was known in the East under the name of Marrakech; the name Morocco comes itself from the deformation of the Spanish pronunciation of Marrakech: Marruecos.

SituationSituation

Chart. Click to enlarge the image.

History and traditionsHistory, literature, arts, traditions, legends, religions, myths, symbols…

HistoryHistory
Marrakech was founded in 1062 (year 454 of Hégire) by Youssef Ibn Tachfin, first king of the dynasty of Almoravides.

Very quickly, in Marrakech, under the impulse of Almoravides, pious and austere men, of many mosques and médersas (schools of Koranic theology) were built, as well as a shopping mall for the Maghreb and the Black Africa. Marrakech grows quickly and was essential like an arts center and influential monk; ramparts were also built to protect the city.

The city was then strengthened by the son of Youssef Ibn Tachfin, Ali Ben Youssef, by the construction of ramparts on several kilometers. The architecture of the city was influenced by Fès, capital founded by Idris I er, and Moslem Spain. These two cities are the cultural and architectural radiation of Morocco, but also of the World Arabo-Moslem: it is they which inspired Al Andalus and which joined together it in the Arab World.

In 1147, Almohades, in favor of an orthodoxe Islam, seized the enclosure of the city; the Almoravides last were exterminated and almost the totality of the destroyed monuments. Almohades built many palaces and religious buildings, such as for example, celebrates it mosque of Koutoubia built on the ruins of a palace almoravide.

In order to feed the palm plantation and the large gardens, a system of irrigation was sophisticated. Marrakech, by cultural radiation attracted many writers and artists, come in particular from Andalusia.

In 1269, Marrakech was conquered by the nomads mérinides at the expense of the Almohades last. When the advent of the Mérinide dynasty occurred, Marrakech fell then into a certain lethargy, and its decline involved the loss of its statute of capital to the profit of its large rival, Fès.

At the beginning of the 16th century, Marrakech becomes again the capital of the kingdom, quickly reached its apogee, in particular thanks to the sultan Saadien, Mohammed El Mahdi. From the fortune piled up by the sultans, Marrakech was clearing, the monuments ruins some then restored and of sumptuous built palaces. The palace built by Saadiens, Badi, is a counterpart of Alhambra, carried out with the most invaluable materials coming from Italy, of Sudan, of the Indies and even of China. A sumptuous protocol, inspired of Topkapi of Istanbul, is applied there. In spite of their opposition to the Turks, Saadiens are attracted by Othoman civilization. A vestige of this influence resides in the name of the district of Derb Dabachi, which derives from the term “ogdabachi” and appoints a senior officer in the Othoman military hierarchy.

Marrakech again will lose its statute of capital. At the end of the 17th century, the current dynasty alaouite succeeded Saadiens. The throne is successively transferred to Fès then with Meknès, new imperial city.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Marrakech knows a few years of civil wars.

In 1912, the introduction of French protectorate in Morocco puts an end to this anarchy. In 1956, the return of exile of the king Mohammed V will be celebrated to Marrakech as in the remainder of the country.

Other topicsOther topics

Filiation of the topics
More detailed topics
Interactive chart of the town of Marrakech
The district of the Medina
The district of Aguedal
The district of the Hivernage
The district of Guéliz
The district of the Palm plantation
The garden of Menara
Close topics
The town of Marrakech
The town of Demnate
The town of Azilal
The town of Oukaïmeden
The town of Tahannaout
The town of Aït Ourir
The town of Aït Mannsour
Broader topics
Home page
The province of Marrakech
Parent topics ] [ Next topics ]
Recommend this page :
Recommend this site :
Personalized search
If you reached this frame directly, click on this link to reveal the menus.