The Madeira, which gives its name to the archipelago, constitutes the central part of an archipelago which is in fact a broad underwater volcanic solid mass. The close islands, Oporto Santo and Desertas, are secondary emergent tops. There is the many different one, immersed. These islands are connected the ones to the others by shallow waters, but the archipelago is encircled abysses of 2,000 m to 3,000 m with some cables of the shore. The Madeira is separated from the Selvagens islands, the Canaries and Africa by an ocean deep reaching 4512 m of depth, surrounded by underworld of almost 2000 Mr.
The principal island of the archipelago, Madeira, is not very wide: it measures 57 km of is in west and 22 km of north in the south, at its most extreme points. The total surface area of the archipelago is of approximately 800 km², including 740 km² for Madeira, 42 km² for Oporto Santo, and the remainder for the uninhabited small islands, declared “Natural reserves”, of Desertas and Selvagens. The culminating point is Pico Ruivo, which culminates to 1,861 m of altitude.
The archipelago of Madeira, located at 32° 38’ of northern latitude and 16° 54’ of western longitude, belongs to Macaronésie, together of islands also including the Azores, the Canaries and the islands of Cape Verde. It bathes in the Atlantic Ocean, to 978 km in the south-west of Lisbon and to 545 km west of course Djouchi, in Morocco. The Canary islands are to 443 km in the south.